This study will analyse the deindustrialization process in El Salvador. Deindustrialization has been a factor in the Latin American countries since the 1980s and contributes to economic stagnation and quality job loss. The first section reviews selected studies in the literature on this subject and is followed by an exploration of the possible causes of deindustrialization in El Salvador. The idea that remittances may have triggered a bout of Dutch disease is the first possibility to be examined, but it is then ruled out. The focus then turns to the repercussions of economic reforms carried out in the 1990s and, by estimating cointegration equations, evidence is found that the extreme form of trade liberalization that was implemented in El Salvador is the chief reason for the contraction of tradable goods sectors. The study closes with a series of recommendations and conclusions.