The document analyzes the social protection responses of ten Latin American countries since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in mid-March 2020. The first section outlines the social context at the time the pandemic hit, case selection of the ten countries examined, and data on existing social protections. The second section provides an overview of income protection responses in response to COVID-19, in the ten countries, assessing speed, breadth and sufficiency. The third section provides detailed country responses in paired comparisons: Argentina and Chile; Peru and the Plurinational State of Bolivia; Brazil and Mexico; Colombia and Ecuador; and Uruguay and Costa Rica. The fourth section provides a conclusion, and tentative lessons for the medium term.